A TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and AUTOIMMUNITY (Graves’s disease): Literature Review


  • Yulita Maulani Politeknik Indonusa Surakarta
  • Inas Hasna Azizah Politeknik Indonusa Surakarta
  • Emma Ismawatie Politeknik Indonusa Surakarta


TLR, grave’s disease, autoimmune


Graves’s disease is an autoimmune condition that affects thyroid. The primary mechanism of Graves' disease is the results of adipokines, specifically leptin, IL-6, TNF, PAPMs molecular patterns, damage to DAMPs, and TLR molecules. In APC, homologous proteins known as Toll-like Receptors (TLR) serve as receptors or antigens. There are various types of TLRs depending on the type of antigen. There are currently 10 human TLRs named TLRs 1-10, TLR-2 and TLR-4 are equally significant in the emergence of autoimmune disorders. According to scholars based on latest research TLR-2, TLR-3, and TLR-9 are increased in Grave diseases. The purpose of this study is to identify the mechanism of TLR which is involved in the immune response in Graves' disease. The search for relevant scientific data was carried out by entering search queries based on keywords: TLR, autoimmunity, Graves's disease. The search was conducted through PubMed, Elsevier journals, and ScienceDirect as well as other highly cited publications.